Monday, 31 December 2012

Lost Sounds Productions Tape | Reel One

To say i'm a fan of nineties Hip Hop is an understatement, that era has moulded what i look for in music. A lot of people (fans/consumers) like me feel let down by the current state of Hip Hop, but i have come down off my Hip Hop snobbery pedestal & found some real gems which i hope this mix will showcase. I suppose for every Nas there was a Vanilla Ice & for Every Kendrick Lamar there's a Flo-rida.

Enjoy, Maintain.

Saturday, 22 December 2012

Join Me (EP) - Camouflage Children

Camouflage Children x Yanaku | Scatter (Official Video)

These cats just keep getting better & better, throw them C's up ya bish!!!

Sunday, 2 December 2012

La Musique Masquerade Boxing Day Party

Sample some of the flavour to come with this excellent promo video by @bannerworx:

Guest-list details
Stephen aka Dj Maintain
07766232234 | Whatsapp
BBM - 26032164

Friday, 23 November 2012

B. A. Dad...

This is the first of many poems i will be posting on my blog by an amazing poetess and friend, Love Haynes aka Louvaine.

How many children do you have?
Do they call you by your first name, or do they call you Dad?
If they call you by your first name don't get cross, cos you don't contribute to any one of their costs. Legal in England all your life, & you cater for pickney that belong to your wife.
What!?! Yeah I said it, had to be done.
You're a disgrace letting them be raised by a single Mum.
You ain't No role model.
You're a Roll model.
Weed habit, taking snaps with a Hennessy bottle.
Do your kids have shoes?
A coat on their backs?
Are they eating food?
Do you think about that?
Do you think about how their getting on at school?
Do you realise that as they grow they Lose respect for you?
You can Gas all you like British - Mutt & Jeff... Say Nada.
You have no excuses left.
You talk about reaping benefits you wanna sow, seeking riches but it never shows, entertaining bitches & thirsty hoes whilst you're ripping out stitches that you've sewn... Delicate pieces of thread that fray everyday.
Unravelling the longer you stay away.
No longer an effect that affects their mummy dearest, just reflects on you and those that are nearest. Its YOUR bad.B.A.D....Your bad.
You're not bad.
Read this and take heed... Be A Dad
B. A. Dad...


Monday, 22 October 2012

Action Bronson - "The Symbol" (Official Video)

Had to blog this, Bronsolini is THE ISH!!!!!!! Dude is on his way to legendary status. Always different, Always Original with a sick flow and lyrics. Hip Hop!!!!!!!

"The Symbol" is the first single from Action Bronson's forthcoming Mixtape 'Rare Chandeliers' produced by the legendary Alchemist. Keep it locked to for the premiere of 'Rare Chandeliers' mixtape!

Directed by Rik Cordero

Score a free download of "The Symbol" here:

Tour dates here:


Sunday, 21 October 2012


What does Urban Mean In British Music?

Ok here goes......the misplaced use of the word 'URBAN' is pissin me off!

This all started when .... The Brit Awards robbed Craig David of an award the year he had like 100 nominations & not one award. The complaints were so high Brits suddenly came up with an 'Urban' category (to save face) & started throwing British 'Black Acts' or acts performing songs of 'Black origin' (lemar, ms dynamite, jamelia, joss stone,) etc into it as they were not being recognised against the other musical genres (pop, indie, rock etc) or International acts Destiny's Child, 50Cent etc

Suddenly 'Urban' became the bin or melting pot for any British act associated with 'Black music' why not just say RnB artist, Soul artist, Black music..... Why mish mash it into this Socially incorrect word in relation to music 'URBAN'! Its a bag of bull shiiieeeetttt.

So now if u wear a baseball cap, sportswear, MC, or use slang..... you are URBAN? Well what are u saying that every individual from innercity areas dresses in 'Streetwear' erm.... Stereotype or what!???! Deeper still if Urban is a another way of implying 'Blackness or black inspired' then are u sayin every Black person comes from the innercity 'Urban' areas & all speak slang, dress street, make music or can run really fast etc etc i mean BLOODY HELL.... **nothern voice** when is this BULL SHIIIEEET **yank voice** gonna STOP!!!!!

 If u are inspired by some aspects of Black culture just friggin say so..... Say u love Hip hop, soul, reggae, blues, jazz, carribean life, rather than embracing it to suddenly 'BE HIP or Quirky or ECLECTIC' & to fit in with the overly wack use of the born again 'SWAGGER' religion that Louie Walsh feels he is the ambassador of!

Was Ray Charles, Nat King Cole, Little Richard, Nina Simone, Etta James, Aretha Franklin, Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington categorised as URBAN? NO!!! They were called Soul acts, Blues, Acts, Jazz acts, Gospel, Rhythm & Blues singers, Pop stars or Black Music period URBAN is not a GENRE so....stop palming it of as one to describe music...

In my **Jim Royale voice** (Royale Family) I say....."URBAN MY ARSE"!!!!!!

Signed: Miss V Fly x

Thursday, 18 October 2012

Dj Maintain Presents - MGM II (Multi Genre Mix 2)

The last mix was received so well that i decided to make a series out of it, so here it is: Dj Maintain Presents - MGM II (Multi Genre Mix 2)

Wednesday, 17 October 2012


The team that brought you
Diff'rent Strokes @ Cherryjam present

La Musique (Masquerade halloween Party) @ Love & Liquor | Friday 2nd November 2012

DJ's | Lonyo | Maintain | Phat Cats | Bannerworx | Mr Marquis

Love & Liquor | 34 Kilburn High Road London, NW6 5UA

Dress Code | Smart Casual don't forget to bring your MASK | Best mask wins £100 on the night

Entry strictly by guest-list only | £10 before Midnight | More after

Party time 20:00 till 02:00

This team of Dj's, event planners & promoters had the biggest night in West london on a Wednesday and then after a year it became the biggest midweek night IN London. They then branched out and created "La Musique" which started with a pre carnival party @ Westbourne Studios which 600 people turned up to which was amazing to behold.

So the La Musique brand is back and ready to amaze all over again, GET INVOLVED :)

For guest-list, bday & table bookings please contact:

Stephen aka Dj Maintain
07766232234 | Whatsapp
BBM - 26032164

Alchemist for 9FIVE Eyewear

Dope!! Hip Hop rules the world :)

9FIVE Eyewear and acclaimed hip hop producer, Alchemist, have teamed up for a limited edition project. The “Yacht Rock” collaboration combines a premium eyewear frame and 7 inch vinyl, produced by Alchemist for 9FIVE. This collaboration is limited to 400 pieces worldwide.
These items come packaged together and will be sold exclusively at authorized 9FIVE Eyewear retailers and on
Learn more at

Thursday, 11 October 2012

Manorlogz - If i told you - Anthony Anaxagorou

I have been looking for this since i went to BUFF (British Urban Film Festival) to see 'David is dying'

Powerful and Amazing!!!!

Friday, 5 October 2012

Dj Maintain | Busta Rhymes Tribute Mix | Download Link added!

I was listening to ScratchVision a few month's back and Dj Scratch said something that stuck with me, it was along the lines of we should appreciate the artists that are still living rather than all jumping on a mix when they unfortunately pass away or on the anniversary of their death, bday etc. So with that being said I've decided to honour Trevor Tahiem Smith Jr aka Busta Rhymes. A true artist in every sense of the word, from his innovative videos, energetic performances on stage and in the booth. Busta has always been one of my favourite mc's and i hope I've done him justice, peace!


Monday, 24 September 2012

10 signs of a WACK DJ (do you know someone like this?)

This is so spot on lol

These are just a few things us DJ's notice about those OTHER DJ's at the club.

Please LIKE and Subscribe to this channel!


Wednesday, 19 September 2012

L a M E S H

NEW WEEKLY MONDAY NIGHT - LAUNCHING MON 24TH SEPT - La MESH - Special set from Dj EZ at launch of new weekly Monday night at, Club LOW- 91 Jermyn Street, Mayfair. Send names for guest lst and table bookings.

Wednesday, 12 September 2012

Maintain Blends: Notorious BIG - Dreams

Another exclusive Dj Maintain blend - if you'd like the original in either WAV or mp3 format e-mail

Tuesday, 11 September 2012

Maintain Blends: Notorious BIG - I Got A Story To Tell.

An Exclusive Dj Maintain blend - if you'd like the original in either WAV or mp3 format e-mail

Wednesday, 5 September 2012

WTF @ Cherryjam Mix (Every Era Every Genre)

WTF!? has gone through some changes of late moving from a Friday to every Saturday night, and what the people in the club want it really does go from every genre to every era. And i'm going to try and showcase that in this mix.
Four 15min approx mixes of Hip Hop, Dancehall, House, Garage enjoy. 

Thursday, 23 August 2012

Jimmy James feat. Micall Parknsun & Bello B (aka Cement) - Definition

I've worked with both Jimmy James & Bello B aka Cement and they're very talented brothers and this song is proof of that enjoy.

Jimmy James feat. Micall Parknsun - Definition from Tom o'Keefe on Vimeo.

Production by Bello B -


Braydz - This Is HipHop

Braydz spitting that fire straight from my hometown #Proud #Dope #HipHop

D/L Free Mixtape @

"This Is HipHop" ft cuts by Dj Bruce Wayne
Follow @mrbrucewayne

Taken From the "Holla@Braydz" Mixtape

Monday, 13 August 2012

New Jack City | Hip Hop Mix (Carnival Edition)

Just jumped on the decks on a pure spontaneous vibe and I've just killed a 30 min Classic Hip Hop Mix for #NewJackCity Carnival Edition - DL link:

Wednesday, 8 August 2012

Camouflage Children x Yanaku | Green Smoke (Freestyle)

Throw Ya C's up!!!!!!!


Filmed by Oliver James Cargill Photography
Edited by

Extra thanks to "Klooze Klothing"

Video: "Watch The Throne" Documentary Starring Kanye West And Jay-Z

If you ever wanted a real behind-the-scenes look at Kanye West and Jay-Z's massive collaborative album, Watch The Throne, then you are in for a serious treat. Director Robert Lopuski has released his official 11-minute documentary on the record, which chronicles the recording process, how their life changed during that time, and much more. As you might expect, Beyonce makes an appearance, too. You can watch the documentary above.

Sunday, 5 August 2012

Clark Parker - Taking Over (Produced by Maintain)

A collaborative effort between myself & Clark Parker.

Production: Mantain
Vocals: Clark Parker
Scratching: Maintain

Domo Genesis and Alchemist – No Idols (2012)

Very Impressed with this project everyone and everything is on point.

Domo Genesis and producer The Alchemist deliver their brand new collaborative project No Idols. Including features from Earl Sweatshirt and Tyler, the Creator, Action Bronson, Prodigy and Smoke DZA.

01 – Prophecy
02 – Fuck Everybody Else
03 – All Alone
04 – Elimination Chamber (feat. Earl Sweatshirt, Vince Staples & Action Bronson)
05 – Power Ballad (feat. Smoke DZA)
06 – Me And My Bitch
07 – Till The Angels Come (feat. Freddie Gibbs & Prodigy)
08 – Daily News (feat. SpaceGhostPurrp, Earl Sweatshirt & Action Bronson)
09 – Gamebreaker (feat. Earl Sweatshirt)
10 – The Feeling
11 – No Idols (feat. Tyler, The Creator)

Thursday, 2 August 2012

Little Brother @ Jazz Cafe 2009


The Foreign Exchange is a R&B/electronica/hip hop duo consisting of American rapper/singer Phonte Coleman and Dutch producer Nicolay.

83 Rivington Street, EC2A 3AY
London, United Kingdom

Q Tip @ Camden Roundhouse

Louis Vuitton - Word | Dream

A tribute to the words of Muhammad Ali by Poet Yasiin Bey (Mos Def) and Calligraffitist Niels Shoe Meulman

Louis Vuitton - Word from Stuart A. McIntyre on Vimeo.

Tuesday, 31 July 2012

The Hive, Graffiti Green House in Melbourne

The Hive Apartments is the first in a series of Hip Hop buildings designed by ITN Architects. It is a joint development by the architect Zvi Belling and ‘Prowla’ of the Rock Da City graffiti crew. Prowla’s design, which spells out ‘Hive’, is constructed in concrete to make the graffiti relief façade complete with arrows, swooshes and drips that will see any council worker have major problems to try and clean it away. Result. An ephemeral art, made permanent.

Friday, 27 July 2012

Frank Ocean @ Terminal 5 NYC

Frank Ocean performed in NYC, The Odd Future-affiliated singer brought top-tier vocals to Terminal 5 and his band was just as crispy.

Wednesday, 11 July 2012

B O U T I Q U E - T W E L V E


Dj maintain & Dj Lonyo

Hip Hop , Funky House , RnB, Garage

FREE Nail treatments for all ladies from 10pm - 12am 
provided by  -

9pm til 3am

Every Weds

12-13 Greek Street,

Sunday, 8 July 2012



Friday, 6 July 2012

Audibly Shaken 0.3 (Club Edition)

Maintains Audibly Shaken mix series is back with version 0.3 the club edition

1. Ryan Leslie ft Fabolous - Beautiful Lie
2. Elle Varner ft J Cole - Only Wanna Give It To you
3. Red Cafe ft Ryan Leslie & Rick Ross - Fly Together
4. Tyga ft Lil Wayne - Faded
5. Kanye West ft Dj Khaled - Cold (Theraflu)
6. Azealia Banks ft Styles P - Nathan
7. Orange Juice - Odd Future
8. Nas - The Don
9. Notorious B.I.G - Who Shot Ya
10. Jay Z & Kanye West ft Frank Ocean - No Church In The Wild
11. Q - Tip - Let's Ride
12. Janet Jackson ft Q-Tip - Got Till It's Gone
12. Pharcyde - Drop
14. Tyga - Rack City
15. Drake - We'll Be Fine
16. Lil Wayne ft Drake - She WIll
17. Nas - Daughters
18. Kanye West & Pusha T - New God Flow
19. Frank Ocean - Math
20. Kendrick Lamar ft Dr Dre -The Recipe
21. Nottz ft Pusha T & Dwele - You Need This Music

Wednesday, 27 June 2012




DJ MAINTAIN @djmaintain

9pm - 2am
20 Inverness Street London Camden NW1 7HJ
£10 ON G-LIST £15 OTD

07766 232 234 - BBM 26032164 / WHATSAPP

Step In The Arena Mix

Friday, 13 April 2012

Camouflage Children & Yanaku - 'What You Rappin For?'

Camouflage Children & Yanaku perform 'What You Rappin For?' for the Garden Gnome


It's plain to see, you can't change me, cus imma be CAMO for life!!!!

Maintain - Lost Sounds Productions

Production for me started with a copy of fruity loops 3.65 which was given to me by my brother in law. Being a BIG fan of Hip Hop I knew I was going to produce but it was just a matter of when, I would have liked to much earlier but hardware samplers were so expensive and I couldn’t see myself saving/earning enough to keep up to speed and primarily the first purchase. I was a pretty good Dj, My Graffiti art earned me a HND in Graphic Design, my rapping got me a home town performance (Harlesden) and after a nervous beginning and forgetting my verse which led to me freestyling into a verse I knew by heart I was shown love and not Boo’s and I left the stage happy. A solitary head spin at a break-dance battle in Roundwood Park at the age of 10 when I should have been at home won my crew bragging rights and me some kudos, until my older sisters came looking for me whipped my customised trucker hat off my head and ordered me home good thing it was tilted to the side to begin with, suffice to say I think embraced the four pillars well enough.

So I wanted to make music like artists I bought on vinyl from, Wild Pytch, Uptown Records, Mr Bongo’s, Catch A Groove, Flying Records, Black Market, Deal Real etc then I came across Lil Brother and heard that they (9th Wonder) used Fruity Loops to make beats and was like NAAAAAAAW!
So every spare moment I made beats that sounded nothing like what I listened to, but I put the frustration to one side and carried on until one day and a Marvin Gaye sample later I started to get that sound I wanted, and I got the bug. I would sample soul to metal gear solid and it was working.
And that is how my production started as a simple hobby which I would do regardless whether it was for an artist or just simply something to do when I got an idea, the time and an opportunity to create.


FL Studio - (formerly known as FruityLoops) is a digital audio workstation FL Studio features a graphical user interface based on a pattern-based music sequencer

Adobe Audition - (formerly Cool Edit Pro) is a digital audio workstation from Adobe featuring both a multi track non-destructive mix/edit environment and a destructive-approach waveform editing view

Sony ACID Pro - professional digital audio workstation (DAW) software that combines full multitrack recording and mixing, MIDI sequencing

T – Racks - Deluxe - Modular High-End Mastering/Mixing Suite of Dynamics and EQ processors.

Tuesday, 27 March 2012

Action Bronson – Barfly – Camden – 25.03.12

I was looking forward to this since I heard Well done, I haven’t got a laptop at home at the moment so the fact I couldn’t check out performances etc on YouTube made me all the more intrigued.

So I arrived at Barfly in Camden mad early but there were heads all over taking in the mid afternoon sun, the evening show sold out so this extra show earlier in the day was arranged.
I grabbed a Rum & Ginger beer and saw my boy Bello B & Jimmy James at the bar so #TeamOck were in the building which made it even better. We spoke about which album’s better Dr Lecter or Well Done and Jimmy assured me Dr Lecter is better so I’m going to have to check it out because I only really know Bronson for his work on Well Done.

So three drinks later I went upstairs feeling nice and was greeted by the supporting act the ‘The Elemental Orchestra’ well not the whole orchestra just the lead vocalist/rapper backed by a very capable Dj Rasp. Wasn’t really feeling his music to be honest, but his freestyle and interaction with the crowd was spot on. He had a sticky sheet of paper stuck up against the wall which worked as a white board, and he encouraged everyone to write random words on it and he’d make up a freestyle as he went along which he did with great skill and for that alone I salute him. (BIG!!!) Even though he wasn’t impressed by the crowd being impressed he just said in a thick scouse accent which made it hit home even harder, “You love those party tricks don’t ya? Bollocks”

‘Action Bronson time’

He strolled though the crowd cheeky grin on his face and a big spliff behind his ear, soon as he got up on stage people started going crazy. He sparked up and then the crowd went even louder then he passed it to someone in the front and the level rose again and then he started to spit. Action Bronson’s vocals are very clear he sounds exactly as he does on his product my barometer for this was raised when I first heard Sadat X live and that guy sounds even better than what the studio captures, so Bronson was off to a good start.

He performed mostly tracks off Dr Lecter from what I could gather and one track off Well Done (
Not Enough Words), but his whole persona and antics were something to behold, you could see from the reaction he was getting that everyone at Barfly are now Bronson fans for life. He got off stage and walked around the crowd spitting, lit up numerous spliffs and encouraged the crowd to pass it around and don’t be greedy “Drug with me” he said hahaha! Bronsolini then went to the bar and put £100 down and told people have a drink on him, I haven’t seen anything like it before, people were following his every move with blackberry’s, I Phone’s, I Pad’s, Cannons you name it.

So he ended the show exhausted with an acapella of Miss Fordham Road (86′ 87′ 88′) thanking the crowd for the love and the history made with the first Hip Hop matinee performance and his first in Europe. As expected people were asking for more and he said “I’ve got another show in the evening I’m tired they’re treating me like a whore my pussy hurts” and with that we laughed and he bounced.

I bought a Tee and then went outside and everyone had the same expression on their face which was one of, WOW what have I just witnessed here. Action Bronson is well on his way to cult status whether gets to live comfortably off his musical talents without compromising his style remains to be seen, but you know what who cares Bronsolini is the SHIT!!!!


The Foreign Exchange – Valediction – Leave It All Behind (LP)

No need to remove your coat
No need to take off your shoes
Usually you could stay, but not today, not today no
This place is no longer yours and
I left your things here right by the door
Please don’t be that way, not today, not today no
Our love is such a rush
But inside it’s slowly killing me
Nothing more for me to say, but not today, not today no
So we must say all our goodbyes
To all of the pain and lies
But nothings been more true
Than these words to you

I’ve been changed and rearranged and
It’s not like it was before
And when the sun shines
I’ll show her why
She can’t keep me anymore, me anymore

Friday, 23 March 2012

Well Done - Action Bronson & Statik Selektah

The first time I heard Action Bronson was via a link posted on my Facebook wall by my girl
‘I love that chick’
The video/song was ‘Cirque Du Soleil’ and what struck me first was the beat by Statik Selektah, it was fresh, grandioso, and it has this big soulful musical Hip Hop sound. Then Bronsolini blesses the beat with his flow that is pulling from so many experiences that his subject matter is very original and leaves you thoroughly edutained. Within that his dark sense of humour will have you laughing or shaking your head thinking “did he really just say that”.

So with that I bought yes BOUGHT the album (Well Done - Action Bronson & Statik Selektah) on first listen I loved it, in my opinion proper Hip Hop beats & f*cking rhymes. I thought Action sounded a lot like Ghostface but the more I listened the less he did.

Stand out tracks for me were:

Cocoa Butter
White Silk
Cirque Du Soleil
Love Letter
Terror Death Camp
Cliff Notes

If you like Hip Hop undiluted and straight up raw then this album is for you, it has a great range of subject matter, beats & turntablism it’s what a Hip Hop album should be.


Michael K. Williams to Play Ol’ Dirty Bastard

Michael K. Williams has landed the role of Ol’ Dirty Bastard. reports that Williams, who currently stars on the HBO series Boardwalk Empire, will star in an upcoming film, tentatively titled Dirty White Boy, about Wu-Tang Clan rap star the late Russell Jones b.k.a Ol’ Dirty Bastard. The film will center on the offbeat friendship between the Wu-Tang Clan member and Jarred Weisfeld, a 22-year-old VH1 production assistant who, through a lot of hustle and a few half truths, finessed his way into becoming ODB’s manager when the troubled rapper was serving a three-year stint in prison in the early 2000s.

Weisfeld, who had no managing experience, surprisingly orchestrated ODB’s unlikely comeback until the star’s fatal drug overdose in 2004 at age 35.

Cinematographer Joaquín Baca-Asay, who worked on Jay-Z’s “99 Problems” video, is set to direct the picture.

Thursday, 22 March 2012

Diff'rent Strokes Re-Launch & 2nd Anniversary @ LOW night club

Diff’rent Strokes is back every Wednesday in a new venue.

Launch Night & Second Anniversary Wednesday 28th March and every Wednesday after.

We’ve moved on from a successful two year Run @ cherryjam, to our new home at LOW

91 Jermyn Street, St James's, London, SW1Y 6JB

The Venue
After a refurb of the club formerly known as Hey Jo’s, owner David West (if you don’t know him, Google him) has teamed up with David Serlui (formerly of Aura) and Andy Giorgini (ex-Brompton Club) to create Low. Secretly tucked away, and accessible via the rather bizarre Abracadabra restaurant, it boasts an exceptional sound system and guest appearances from leading DJs.

So far, this club has barely advertised its whereabouts so expect a crowd that are in the know and eager to dance the night away. Securing a table is a good way to go as you’ll always have a seat and can rest tired feet. Don’t expect the customary sparklers when bottles are served as this crowd are too busy dancing to care.

This club is all about the music so sensibly they have invested in state of the art Void sound system.

Resident Dj’s are: Manny Norte, Lonyo, Maintain, Cj-iDj

Music Policy: (Hip Hop & RnB)

£10 on guest-list for ladies and mixed groups

For guest-list & table bookings you can contact me using the details provided below


07766 232 234
BBM: 26032164

Odd Future's Earl Sweatshirt:

Earl Sweatshirt made his live debut with his Odd Future cohorts at Tuesday night's sold out Hammerstein Ballroom concert in New York, confirming rumours that had been circulating in the days before. The concert marked his first public appearance since returning from a reform boarding school in Samoa, where he'd spent the last year disconnected from Odd Future's ascent. "Y'all better act like y'all missed me," Earl shouted to the crowd before launching into "Orange Juice" and "A**Milk," fan-favourite collaborations with group founder Tyler, the Creator. The surprise performance came on the heels of Earl's appearance in the music video for Odd Future's latest single, "Oldie," as well as an interview with New York radio station Hot 97's Peter Rosenberg, his first since returning. "We waited so long for that shit," Tyler added from the stage. "You have no idea how awesome this is."
Hours prior, Sweatshirt
spoke on making a strong return to the music spotlight.
"Were you talking to people, aware that s---'s going bananas?" the venerable DJ asks an extremely timid Earl who was put in boarding school in June of 2010, just as Odd Future began their meteoric rise to fame. "I was aware, I mean, because ... the Internet." "Were you aware that you were missing out on something this insane? Were you pissed? Were you annoyed?" Rosenberg responded. "Yeah initially, but then I also got to f---ing see that all this s--- isn't fun all the time." Earl, of course, was speaking of the block that he grew up on. An area of Los Angeles where he could skate and mess around on the pavement until the sun went down. But with the group's rise in fame, Sweatshirt can't walk through his home turf without fans asking for pictures and autographs.